Clean Development Mechanism

A modelling assessment of the impact of Clean Development Mechanism on electricity generation systems: Case of Shandong province, China

Gnansounou, E., Bedniaguine, D., Dong, J. (2005). Presented at 25th USAEE / IAEE North American Conference, Denver, USA, Sept. 2005.

The electricity generation sector is broadly cited among the most promising domains for implementation of greenhouse gases (GHG) abatement measures intended to achieve the targets set up in the Kyoto Protocol. Meanwhile, considered through the perspective of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the electricity sector offers attractive business opportunities for investment in GHG mitigation projects which may be beneficial for both industrialised and developing countries. This work aims to identify such GHG emissions reduction projects within the electricity sector that can be eligible for CDM. It is assumed that revenues from sale of the certified emission reductions (CERs) would increase competitiveness of the power generation technologies with lower carbon emission rates, thereby altering economically efficient load order and capacity deployment. Possible range of CDM projects as well as economical and environmental benefits from their implementation were estimated using a least cost electricity system expansion planning model PLANELEC-Pro. It is found that in a reference Chinese province of Shandong the Clean Development Mechanism may contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions by 46.8 million tons (1.64%) compared to the baseline case through the deployment of wind power and advanced clean coal technologies. The total cost of the electricity generation system can be decreased by up to US$ 86 million (0.24%) due to sale of CERs in the international market. Sensitivity analyses were made on the price of CERs which is the main factor having effect on the economical benefits from CDM and the resulting structure of the power generation mix.

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Promoting bioethanol production through Clean Development Mechanism: findings and lessons learnt from ASIATIC project

Gnansounou, E., Bedniaguine, D., Dauriat, A. (2005). Presented at 7th IAEE European Energy Conference, Bergen, Norway, August 2005.

Global climate change mitigation policies call for increasing use of biomass fuels as renewable substitutes to fossil energy resources. Quantified targets for biofuels introduction in to the market exist in the United States, the European Union, and a number of developing countries. In this context, mixing biologically produced ethanol with conventional gasoline represents an attractive technical option allowing for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and lessening the dependence on non-renewable petrol in the transportation sector. This paper investigates technological and socio-economic aspects of ethanol production in developing countries, particularly in China, with special focus on determining eligibility of bioethanol projects for Clean Development Mechanism. Basing on the findings of the ASIATIC study (Agriculture and Small to Medium Scale Industries in Peri-urban Areas through Ethanol Production for Transport In China), we analyse how alcohol fuels can be produced in a sustainable way with mutual benefits between rural and urban people. The bioethanol production cost and life cycle CO2eq emissions were calculated for six different types of feedstock: sugarcane, sugarcane molasses, sweet sorghum juice, cassava, corn, and sorghum bagasse. Implications of the CDM rules and procedures for bioethanol industry were examined under the angles of environmental and economical additionality, and conformity with the principles of sustainable development. It is found that the starch-based (cassava) ethanol production path has the greatest potential for market penetration in China, followed by the conversion route using sugar-based feedstock (sorghum juice, sugarcane molasses). Meanwhile, the lignocelluloses biomass – to – ethanol technology may represent the highest interest for implementation as Clean Development Mechanism project.

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China CDM National Strategy Study

As a member of international advisory group, LASEN contributed to National Strategy study on CDM in China