Symbitron

Project Description

Symbitron: Symbiotic man-machine interactions in wearable exoskeletons to enhance mobility for paraplegics

2013-10-01 to 2018-03-31 (ongoing project)

The goal of Symbitron is to enable individuals with paraplegia to regain mobility with a novel lower-limb exoskeleton and a bio-inspired controller. BioRob’s role is to develop and test a neuromuscular controller that can produce various walking gaits with resemblance to human kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations with few sensors and no pre-defined reference patterns.

Neuromuscular Controller

For real world function, wearable devices to assist gait should be highly responsive to both the user and the environment. Users should also be able to interact with the device in an intuitive manner. This positive shared control between machine and human is especially important for individuals with spinal cord injuries, where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC) and its use in assisting the gait of SCI test pilots.

The NMC was based on a sagittal plane neuromechanical simulation developed by Hartmut Geyer, which generates walking by activating simulated muscle reflex loops stimulated by few sensory imputs. Only the foot contact states and joint angles are needed to activate the simulated reflex loops of the Hill-type muscle models. The stance reflexes loop provides weight bearing support during the stance phase, and the swing reflexes allow the leg to flex and swing freely. The muscle forces generated from the virtual muscle dynamics combine to produce knee and hip torque commands to the gait trainer. The advantages of this controller over other approaches include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. In particular, the controller does not require filtering of its inputs (as with myoelectric control), can be decomposed into relevant modules (e.g. only knee or hip control), and can generate walking at different speeds and on different terrains in simulation.

For implementation on hardware, we developed a NMC Simulink library with control modules that allowed for tailoring to specific exoskeleton devices. So far we have tested the NMC on three different devices. The ankle module was tested on powered ankle exoskeleton Achilles, and the knee and hip modules were tested with gait trainer LOPES (both devices are from UTwente). We are currently testing the ankle and knee module on our new wearable exoskeleton. To provide subject-specific control for the SCI subjects, the NMC modules were designed to provide asymmetric control between the right and left legs, between extension and flexion, and among different muscles.

Neuromuscular controller

Tests with Human Subjects

We evaluated our controller with both healthy and paraplegic subjects. The modular nature of our controller enables us to test it on several different types of lower limb assistive devices. We evaluated subjects’ walking kinematics and kinetics, muscle activation levels, and metabolic power when possible.

Ankle Control

We tested the ankle module of the neuromuscular controller with a powered ankle exoskeleton (UTwente’s Achilles) on healthy subjects and paraplegic test plots with some mobility. For the healthy subjects, we evaluated the mechanics and energetics of walking with such a device and controller. This controller was designed to mimic human reflex patterns during locomotion, which we hypothesized would lead to lower energetic costs compared to walking with the added mass of the device only. Preliminary tests found that healthy-like gait patterns remained intact, and metabolic costs were reduced compared to the transparent mode of the device. Muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and soleus were also reduced with the assistive push-off. Please see Dzeladini et al. 2016 under Publications for more information.

Knee and Hip Control

We evaluated the neuromuscular controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer (UTwente’s LOPES) with seven pilots with paraplegia (four complete, two incomplete) and one healthy subject. We determined that the NMC could enable normal-like walking gait kinematics at various walking speeds. We found that SCI pilots could walk at a range of normal walking speeds– from 0.6 m/s to 1.4 m/s. Despite a few differences between NMC-produced torques and healthy biological torques, the SCI joint kinematics were similar to healthy kinematics. With few sensors and no predefined gait patterns for multiple speeds or different subjects, the NMC could produce various walking patterns based on subject interaction with the environment. Please see Wu et al. 2017 under publications for more information.

WE1: Ankle and Knee Control

Our consortium partners at Delft and UTwente have developed a new ankle and knee wearable exoskeleton. Tests of the NMC with this device on paraplegic pilots are currently ongoing at the Fondazione Santa Lucia, another one of our consortium partners. Since this exoskeleton only actuates the ankle and knee, these pilots already have some volitional control of their hip joint.

WE2: Lower Limb Control (ankle, knee, hip)

Tests of the full lower limb exoskeleton and neurmuscular controller will be conducted in early 2018. These tests will involve paraplegic pilots who do not have volitional control of their hip joints.

Media

Student Projects

Related student projects:

S. Berger. Energy consumption optimization and stumbling corrective response for bipedal walking gait.

F. Dzeladini. Implementation of a human feedback-based locomotion and its control by means of a feedforward component inspired by central pattern generators

A. di Russo. Biomechanical analysis of slow walking and stepping behavior in healthy subjects on treadmill

Researchers

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Auke J. Ijspeert, Florin Dzeladini, Amy R. Wu

Publications

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhancement of 200 at 21.15 T Enabled by 65 kHz Magic Angle Spinning

P. Berruyer; S. Björgvinsdóttir; A. Bertarello; G. Stevanato; Y. Rao et al. 

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 2020-09-22. Vol. 11, num. 19, p. 8386-8391. DOI : 10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02493.

Open and Closed Radicals: Local Geometry around Unpaired Electrons Governs Magic-Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Performance

G. Stevanato; G. Casano; D. J. Kubicki; Y. Rao; L. Esteban Hofer et al. 

Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2020. Vol. 142, num. 39, p. 16587-16599. DOI : 10.1021/jacs.0c04911.

Dynamic behaviour of a Francis turbine during voltage regulation in the electrical power system

E. Vagnoni; D. Valentin; F. Avellan 

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2020. Vol. 125, p. 1-10, 106474. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijepes.2020.106474.

Analogue computing with metamaterials

F. Zangeneh Nejad; D. Sounas; A. Alù; R. Fleury 

Nature Reviews Materials. 2020-10-19. DOI : 10.1038/s41578-020-00243-2.

Thin layers of phytoplankton and harmful algae events in a coastal upwelling system

E. Broullon; M. Lopez-Mozos; B. Reguera; P. Choucino; M. D. Doval et al. 

Progress in Oceanography. 2020-10-14. Vol. 189, num. 102449. DOI : 10.1016/j.pocean.2020.102449.

Determinants of Different Types of Positive Environmental Behaviors: An Analysis of Public and Private Sphere Actions

R. Hansmann; C. R. Binder 

Sustainability. 2020-10-15. Vol. 12, num. 20, p. 8547. DOI : 10.3390/su12208547.

Gas-sieving zeolitic membranes fabricated by condensation of precursor nanosheets

M. Dakhchoune; L. F. Villalobos; R. Semino; L. Liu; M. Rezaei et al. 

Nature Materials. 2020-10-05. DOI : 10.1038/s41563-020-00822-2.

Geodesic flows on real forms of complex semi-simple Lie groups of rigid body type

T. S. Ratiu; D. Tarama 

Research In The Mathematical Sciences. 2020-10-06. Vol. 7, num. 4, p. 32. DOI : 10.1007/s40687-020-00227-2.

MOSES: A Streaming Algorithm for Linear Dimensionality Reduction

A. Eftekhari; R. A. Hauser; A. Grammenos 

Ieee Transactions On Pattern Analysis And Machine Intelligence. 2020-11-01. Vol. 42, num. 11, p. 2901-2911. DOI : 10.1109/TPAMI.2019.2919597.

On Linear Learning with Manycore Processors

E. Wszola; C. Mendler-Duenner; M. Jaggi; M. Pueschel 

2019-01-01. 26th International Conference on High Performance Computing, Data and Analytics (HiPCW), Hyderabad, INDIA, Dec 17-20, 2019. p. 184-194. DOI : 10.1109/HiPC.2019.00032.

Exploiting end-of-life lamps fluorescent powder e-waste as a secondary resource for critical rare earth metals

A. B. Patil; M. Tarik; R. P. Struis; C. Ludwig 

Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2021. Vol. 164, p. 1-8, 105153. DOI : 10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.105153.

Development of discrete surface growth models for frictional surfaces

T. Fry 

2020-01-23.

Assessing mobile ions contributions to admittance spectra and current-voltage characteristics of 3D and 2D/3D perovskite solar cells

A. S. Shikoh; S. Paek; A. Y. Polyakov; N. B. Smirnov; I. Shchemerov et al. 

Solar Energy Materials And Solar Cells. 2020-09-15. Vol. 215, p. 110670. DOI : 10.1016/j.solmat.2020.110670.

On the effect of linear feedback and parametric pumping on a resonator’s frequency stability

Z. Mohammadi; T. L. Heugel; J. M. L. Miller; D. D. Shin; H-K. Kwon et al. 

New Journal Of Physics. 2020-09-01. Vol. 22, num. 9, p. 093049. DOI : 10.1088/1367-2630/abb1dd.

90 YEARS OF PROGESTERONE Progesterone receptor signaling in the normal breast and its implications for cancer

C. Brisken; V. Scabia 

Journal Of Molecular Endocrinology. 2020-07-01. Vol. 65, num. 1, p. T81-T94. DOI : 10.1530/JME-20-0091.

A note on the integrality gap of the configuration LP for restricted Santa Claus

K. Jansen; L. Rohwedder 

Information Processing Letters. 2020-12-01. Vol. 164, p. 106025. DOI : 10.1016/j.ipl.2020.106025.

Shrink It or Shed It! Minimize the Use of LSQs in Dataflow Designs

L. Josipovic; A. Bhattacharyya; A. Guerrieri; P. Ienne 

2019-01-01. International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (ICFPT), Tianjin, PEOPLES R CHINA, Dec 09-13, 2019. p. 197-205. DOI : 10.1109/ICFPT47387.2019.00031.

In Search of Lost Bandwidth: Extensive Reordering of DRAM Accesses on FPGA

G. Csordas; M. Asiatici; P. Ienne 

2019-01-01. International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (ICFPT), Tianjin, PEOPLES R CHINA, Dec 09-13, 2019. p. 188-196. DOI : 10.1109/ICFPT47387.2019.0003.

Harvesting the flexibility of energy communities from a DSO perspective

A. Zürcher 

2020-10-08.

Species conservation in the face of global environmental changes: surface-based modelling of geo-environmental data to identify vulnerable populations

E. Rochat / S. Joost; F. Golay (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Multi-Objective Management of Multiprocessor Systems: From Heuristics to Reinforcement Learning

A. Iranfar / D. Atienza Alonso (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Hemodynamics of ageing, ventricular-arterial coupling and noninvasive assessment of key hemodynamical and cardiac quantities

S. Z. Pagoulatou / N. Stergiopulos (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Learning approaches to high-fidelity optical diffraction tomography

J. Lim / D. Psaltis (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Optimum design of low environmental impact structures through component reuse

J. F. G. Brütting / C. J. D. Fivet; G. Senatore (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Invariant solutions underlying small- and large-scale structures in turbulent boundary layers

S. Azimi / T. Schneider (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Microstructured biodegradable fibers for advanced controlled release

S. Shadman Yazdi / F. Sorin (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Microfluidic iMITOMI platform to study the architecture of low-affinity transcription factor binding site clusters

I. Istomin / S. Maerkl (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Atomic Scale Investigations into the Origins of Ductility in Mg Alloys

R. Ahmad / W. Curtin (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

The shaping effects of innovation and technology: from micro business model evolution to macro environment sustainability

Q. Lu / C. Tucci (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

On the adjustment, calibration and orientation of drone photogrammetry and laser-scanning

E. P. Q. Clédat / J. Skaloud; D. A. Cucci (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Multiphase flows in Microfluidic Reactors

P. Hadikhani / D. Psaltis (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Shape changes through geometric nonlinear control as a strategy for structural adaptation

A. P. Reksowardojo / I. Smith; G. Senatore (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Investigation of femtosecond laser-tuned thermomechanical properties of fused silica

P. Vlugter / Y. Bellouard (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Service Restoration Strategy in Active Distribution Networks

H. Sekhavatmanesh / S-R. Cherkaoui (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Small-scale organic Rankine cycle turbo-generator for waste heat recovery on truck engine

K. Rosset / J. A. Schiffmann (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Activation of small molecules promoted by multimetallic complexes supported by redox active ligands

D. Toniolo / M. Mazzanti (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Accelerating materials discovery for solid state electrolytes

M. G. Mottet / N. Marzari; I. Tavernelli (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2020. 

Hippocampal Contribution to Ordinal Psychological Time in the Human Brain

B. Gauthier; P. Prabhu; K. A. Kotegar; V. van Wassenhove 

Journal Of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2020-11-01. Vol. 32, num. 11, p. 2071-2086. DOI : 10.1162/jocn_a_01586.

Speed detection of battery-free nodes based on RF Wireless Power Transfer

R. La Rosa; C. Dehollain; F. Pellitteri; N. Campagna; P. Livreri 

2020-01-01. IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT (METROIND4.O and IoT), ELECTR NETWORK, Jun 03-05, 2020. p. 374-378. DOI : 10.1109/MetroInd4.0IoT48571.2020.9138178.

Feedback-Aware Precoding for Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO Systems

R. Ghanaatian; V. Jamali; A. Burg; R. Schober 

2019-01-01. 30th IEEE Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Istanbul, TURKEY, Sep 08-11, 2019. p. 1021-1027. DOI : 10.1109/PIMRC.2019.8904332.

Federated Learning with Bayesian Differential Privacy

A. Triastcyn; B. Faltings 

2019-01-01. IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data), Los Angeles, CA, Dec 09-12, 2019. p. 2587-2596. DOI : 10.1109/BigData47090.2019.9005465.

Continuous monitoring of propofol in human serum with fouling compensation by support vector classifier

S. Aiassa; I. Ny Hanitra; G. Sandri; T. Totu; F. Grassi et al. 

Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2020-10-15. Vol. 171, p. 1-7, 112666. DOI : 10.1016/j.bios.2020.112666.

Emulator Design and Generation of Synthetic Dataset in Multi-Ion Sensing

M. I. Ny Hanitra; D. Demarchi; S. Carrara; G. De Micheli 

2020-10-15. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) , Seville, Spain – virtual, October 10-21, 2020. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS45731.2020.9181217.

Enumerating Optimal Quantum Circuits using Spectral Classification

G. Meuli; M. Soeken; M. Roetteler; G. De Micheli 

2020-10-15. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) , Seville, Spain – virtual, October 10-21, 2020. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS45731.2020.9180792.

Transfusjon på riktig indikasjon. Innføring av retningslinjer for restriktiv transfusjon av erytrocyttkonsentrat ved kirurgisk avdeling, sykehuset Lillehammer

A. M. Anderson; J. S. Högberg; K. Khalid; O. Limoseth; M. C. R. Martinez et al. 

2015. 

[Thinking big]

M. J. Stensrud 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2015-05-19. Vol. 135, num. 9, p. 869-870. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.15.0171.

[Athletic language confusion]

F. E. Juul; J-Ø. Samuelsen; M. J. Stensrud 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2015-08-11. Vol. 135, num. 14, p. 1273. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.15.0564.

[What can we say about causality?]

M. J. Stensrud; O. O. Aalen 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2015-09-08. Vol. 135, num. 16, p. 1465-1467. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.15.0347.

How Do We Analyze Effects of Low Diastolic Blood Pressure?

M. J. Stensrud; S. Strohmaier 

The American Journal of Medicine. 2019. Vol. 132, num. 1, p. e23. DOI : 10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.07.046.

Sufficient Cause Interaction for Time-to-event Outcomes

M. J. Stensrud; P. C. Ryalen; K. Røysland 

Epidemiology. 2019-03. Vol. 30, num. 2, p. 189–196. DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000958.

Is it the intention that counts?

M. J. Stensrud 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2019-03-26. Vol. 139, num. 6. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.18.0956.

Let’s be pragmatic

M. J. Stensrud 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2019-05-07. Vol. 139, num. 8. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.19.0059.

Should we abandon the term ‘statistical significance’?

M. J. Stensrud; O. O. Aalen 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2019. Vol. 139, num. 11. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.19.0311.

Causal inference with limited resources: proportionally-representative interventions

A. L. Sarvet; K. N. Wanis; J. Young; R. Hernandez-Alejandro; M. A. Hernán et al. 

arXiv:2002.11846 [math, stat]. 2020-02-28. 

Kan statistikk si noe om mekanismer?

O. O. Aalen; M. J. Stensrud 

Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. 2020-04-20. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.20.0001.

Randomisering under en pandemi

M. J. Stensrud; J. M. Gran 

Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. 2020-06-23. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.20.0439.

Conditional separable effects

M. J. Stensrud; J. M. Robins; A. Sarvet; E. J. T. Tchetgen; J. G. Young 

2020-06-28

Estimation of separable direct and indirect effects in continuous time

T. Martinussen; M. J. Stensrud 

2020-08-30

[Mendelian randomisation – a genetic approach to an epidemiological method]

M. J. Stensrud 

Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke. 2016-06. Vol. 136, num. 11, p. 1002-1005. DOI : 10.4045/tidsskr.15.1262.

Re: Generalizing Study Results: A Potential Outcomes Perspective

A. Huitfeldt; M. J. Stensrud 

Epidemiology. 2018-03. Vol. 29, num. 2, p. e13. DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000769.

The hazards of period specific and weighted hazard ratios

J. Bartlett; T. P. Morris; M. Stensrud; R. Daniel; S. Vansteelandt et al. 

Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research. 2020-06-23. DOI : 10.1080/19466315.2020.1755722.

The Effect of Prenatal Treatments on Offspring Events in the Presence of Competing Events: An Application to a Randomized Trial of Fertility Therapies.

C. Yh; S. Mj; D. Ij; R. P; D. Mp et al. 

Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). 2020-09-01. Vol. 31, num. 5, p. 636-643. DOI : 10.1097/ede.0000000000001222.

Can Collider Bias Explain Paradoxical Associations?

M. J. Stensrud; M. Valberg; O. O. Aalen 

Epidemiology. 2017-07. Vol. 28, num. 4, p. e39. DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000653.

The additive hazard estimator is consistent for continuous-time marginal structural models

P. C. Ryalen; M. J. Stensrud; K. Røysland 

Lifetime Data Analysis. 2019-10-01. Vol. 25, num. 4, p. 611-638. DOI : 10.1007/s10985-019-09468-y.

On null hypotheses in survival analysis

M. J. Stensrud; K. Røysland; P. C. Ryalen 

Biometrics. 2019. Vol. 75, num. 4, p. 1276-1287. DOI : 10.1111/biom.13102.

Effect heterogeneity and variable selection for standardizing causal effects to a target population

A. Huitfeldt; S. A. Swanson; M. J. Stensrud; E. Suzuki 

European Journal of Epidemiology. 2019-12-01. Vol. 34, num. 12, p. 1119-1129. DOI : 10.1007/s10654-019-00571-w.

Causal inference in continuous time: an example on prostate cancer therapy

P. C. Ryalen; M. J. Stensrud; S. Fosså; K. Røysland 

Biostatistics. 2020. Vol. 21, num. 1, p. 172-185. DOI : 10.1093/biostatistics/kxy036.

Generalized interpretation and identification of separable effects in competing event settings

M. J. Stensrud; M. A. Hernán; E. J. T. Tchetgen; J. M. Robins; V. Didelez et al. 

2020-05-04

A Graphical Description of Partial Exchangeability

A. L. Sarvet; K. N. Wanis; M. J. Stensrud; M. A. Hernán 

Epidemiology. 2020-05. Vol. 31, num. 3, p. 365–368. DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001165.

On the collapsibility of measures of effect in the counterfactual causal framework

A. Huitfeldt; M. J. Stensrud; E. Suzuki 

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. 2019. Vol. 16, num. 1, p. 1. DOI : 10.1186/s12982-018-0083-9.

Can chance cause cancer? A causal consideration

M. J. Stensrud; S. Strohmaier; M. Valberg; O. O. Aalen 

European Journal of Cancer. 2017-04-01. Vol. 75, p. 83-85. DOI : 10.1016/j.ejca.2016.12.022.

Feedback and Mediation in Causal Inference Illustrated by Stochastic Process Models

O. O. Aalen; J. M. Gran; K. Røysland; M. J. Stensrud; S. Strohmaier 

Scandinavian Journal of Statistics. 2018. Vol. 45, num. 1, p. 62-86. DOI : 10.1111/sjos.12286.

Transforming cumulative hazard estimates

P. C. Ryalen; M. J. Stensrud; K. Røysland 

Biometrika. 2018-12-01. Vol. 105, num. 4, p. 905-916. DOI : 10.1093/biomet/asy035.

Separable Effects for Causal Inference in the Presence of Competing Events

M. J. Stensrud; J. G. Young; V. Didelez; J. M. Robins; M. A. Hernán 

Journal of the American Statistical Association. 2020-05-15.  p. 1-9. DOI : 10.1080/01621459.2020.1765783.

Immunogold characteristics of VGLUT3-positive GABAergic nerve terminals suggest corelease of glutamate

M. J. Stensrud; C. J. Sogn; V. Gundersen 

Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2015. Vol. 523, num. 18, p. 2698-2713. DOI : 10.1002/cne.23811.

Diastolic hypotension due to intensive blood pressure therapy: Is it harmful?

M. J. Stensrud; S. Strohmaier 

Atherosclerosis. 2017-10-01. Vol. 265, p. 29-34. DOI : 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.07.019.

The surprising implications of familial association in disease risk

M. Valberg; M. J. Stensrud; O. O. Aalen 

BMC Public Health. 2018. Vol. 18, num. 1, p. 135. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-018-5033-5.

Radiologic evaluation of lumps in the male breast

Å. Tangerud; I. Potapenko; H. K. Skjerven; M. J. Stensrud 

Acta Radiologica. 2016-07-01. Vol. 57, num. 7, p. 809-814. DOI : 10.1177/0284185115609802.

Time-dependent mediators in survival analysis: Modeling direct and indirect effects with the additive hazards model

O. O. Aalen; M. J. Stensrud; V. Didelez; R. Daniel; K. Røysland et al. 

Biometrical Journal. 2020. Vol. 62, num. 3, p. 532-549. DOI : 10.1002/bimj.201800263.

Inequality in genetic cancer risk suggests bad genes rather than bad luck

M. J. Stensrud; M. Valberg 

Nature Communications. 2017-10-27. Vol. 8, num. 1, p. 1165. DOI : 10.1038/s41467-017-01284-y.

Vesicular glutamate transporter-3 in the rodent brain: Vesicular colocalization with vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter

M. J. Stensrud; F. A. Chaudhry; T. B. Leergaard; J. G. Bjaalie; V. Gundersen 

Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2013. Vol. 521, num. 13, p. 3042-3056. DOI : 10.1002/cne.23331.

A causal framework for classical statistical estimands in failure-time settings with competing events

J. G. Young; M. J. Stensrud; E. J. T. Tchetgen; M. A. Hernán 

Statistics in Medicine. 2020. Vol. 39, num. 8, p. 1199-1236. DOI : 10.1002/sim.8471.

Exploring Selection Bias by Causal Frailty Models

M. J. Stensrud; M. Valberg; K. Røysland; O. O. Aalen 

Epidemiology. 2017-05-01. Vol. 28, num. 3, p. 379-386. DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000621.

A distinct set of synaptic-like microvesicles in atroglial cells contain VGLUT3

L. Ormel; M. J. Stensrud; F. A. Chaudhry; V. Gundersen 

Glia. 2012. Vol. 60, num. 9, p. 1289-1300. DOI : 10.1002/glia.22348.

VGLUT1 is localized in astrocytic processes in several brain regions

L. Ormel; M. J. Stensrud; L. H. Bergersen; V. Gundersen 

Glia. 2012. Vol. 60, num. 2, p. 229-238. DOI : 10.1002/glia.21258.

The adsorption and desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and pyrene onto microplastics in the aquatic environment and digestive fluids

Y. Liu; C. L. C. Siri; T. B. Masset; F. Breider 

MICRO2020 International Conference. Fate and impacts of microplastics: knowledge and responsibilities, Lanzorote, Spain and Virtual Meeting, November 23-27 2020.

An overlapping pattern of cerebral cortical thinning is associated with both positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia via the ENIGMA consortium

T. Y. Wong; J. Radua; E. Pomarol-Clotet; R. Salvador; A. Albajes-Eizagirre et al. 

Psychological Medicine. 2020-09-01. Vol. 50, num. 12, p. PII S00332917190021492034-2045. DOI : 10.1017/S0033291719002149.

Genomic Analysis of European Drosophila melanogaster Populations Reveals Longitudinal Structure, Continent-Wide Selection, and Previously Unknown DNA Viruses

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Molecular Biology And Evolution. 2020-09-01. Vol. 37, num. 9, p. 2661-2678. DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msaa120.

Tumor-Promoting Ly-6G(+) SiglecF(high) Cells Are Mature and Long-Lived Neutrophils

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Cell Reports. 2020-09-22. Vol. 32, num. 12, p. 108164. DOI : 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108164.

Software training for the next generation of physicists: joint experience of LHCb and ALICE

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Optical gap and fundamental gap of oligoynes and carbyne

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Nature Communications. 2020-09-23. Vol. 11, num. 1, p. 4797. DOI : 10.1038/s41467-020-18496-4.

Clinical relevance of low-densityPlasmodium falciparumparasitemia in untreated febrile children: A cohort study

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Plos Medicine. 2020-09-01. Vol. 17, num. 9, p. e1003318. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003318.

On the Limitations of Cross-lingual Encoders as Exposed by Reference-Free Machine Translation Evaluation

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Assessment of the breakthrough of micropollutants in full-scale granular activated carbon adsorbers by rapid small-scale column tests and a novel pilot-scale sampling approach

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Environmental Science-Water Research & Technology. 2020-10-01. Vol. 6, num. 10, p. 2742-2751. DOI : 10.1039/d0ew00405g.

Compressed sensing with signal averaging for improved sensitivity and motion artifact reduction in fluorine-19 MRI

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Tuning Conductivity and Spin Dynamics in Few-Layer Graphene via In Situ Potassium Exposure

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Effect of fibre orientation and bulk modulus on the electromechanical modelling of human ventricles

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Mathematics In Engineering. 2020-01-01. Vol. 2, num. 4, p. 614-638. DOI : 10.3934/mine.2020028.

Analysis of Functional Errors Produced by Long-Term Workload-Dependent BTI Degradation in Ultralow Power Processors

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Ieee Transactions On Very Large Scale Integration (Vlsi) Systems. 2020-10-01. Vol. 28, num. 10, p. 2122-2133. DOI : 10.1109/TVLSI.2020.3003471.

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Calcium-triggered fusion of lipid membranes is enabled by amphiphilic nanoparticles

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Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America. 2020-08-04. Vol. 117, num. 31, p. 18470-18476. DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1902597117.