Symbitron

Project Description

Symbitron: Symbiotic man-machine interactions in wearable exoskeletons to enhance mobility for paraplegics

2013-10-01 to 2018-03-31 (ongoing project)

The goal of Symbitron is to enable individuals with paraplegia to regain mobility with a novel lower-limb exoskeleton and a bio-inspired controller. BioRob’s role is to develop and test a neuromuscular controller that can produce various walking gaits with resemblance to human kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations with few sensors and no pre-defined reference patterns.

Neuromuscular Controller

For real world function, wearable devices to assist gait should be highly responsive to both the user and the environment. Users should also be able to interact with the device in an intuitive manner. This positive shared control between machine and human is especially important for individuals with spinal cord injuries, where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC) and its use in assisting the gait of SCI test pilots.

The NMC was based on a sagittal plane neuromechanical simulation developed by Hartmut Geyer, which generates walking by activating simulated muscle reflex loops stimulated by few sensory imputs. Only the foot contact states and joint angles are needed to activate the simulated reflex loops of the Hill-type muscle models. The stance reflexes loop provides weight bearing support during the stance phase, and the swing reflexes allow the leg to flex and swing freely. The muscle forces generated from the virtual muscle dynamics combine to produce knee and hip torque commands to the gait trainer. The advantages of this controller over other approaches include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. In particular, the controller does not require filtering of its inputs (as with myoelectric control), can be decomposed into relevant modules (e.g. only knee or hip control), and can generate walking at different speeds and on different terrains in simulation.

For implementation on hardware, we developed a NMC Simulink library with control modules that allowed for tailoring to specific exoskeleton devices. So far we have tested the NMC on three different devices. The ankle module was tested on powered ankle exoskeleton Achilles, and the knee and hip modules were tested with gait trainer LOPES (both devices are from UTwente). We are currently testing the ankle and knee module on our new wearable exoskeleton. To provide subject-specific control for the SCI subjects, the NMC modules were designed to provide asymmetric control between the right and left legs, between extension and flexion, and among different muscles.

Neuromuscular controller

Tests with Human Subjects

We evaluated our controller with both healthy and paraplegic subjects. The modular nature of our controller enables us to test it on several different types of lower limb assistive devices. We evaluated subjects’ walking kinematics and kinetics, muscle activation levels, and metabolic power when possible.

Ankle Control

We tested the ankle module of the neuromuscular controller with a powered ankle exoskeleton (UTwente’s Achilles) on healthy subjects and paraplegic test plots with some mobility. For the healthy subjects, we evaluated the mechanics and energetics of walking with such a device and controller. This controller was designed to mimic human reflex patterns during locomotion, which we hypothesized would lead to lower energetic costs compared to walking with the added mass of the device only. Preliminary tests found that healthy-like gait patterns remained intact, and metabolic costs were reduced compared to the transparent mode of the device. Muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and soleus were also reduced with the assistive push-off. Please see Dzeladini et al. 2016 under Publications for more information.

Knee and Hip Control

We evaluated the neuromuscular controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer (UTwente’s LOPES) with seven pilots with paraplegia (four complete, two incomplete) and one healthy subject. We determined that the NMC could enable normal-like walking gait kinematics at various walking speeds. We found that SCI pilots could walk at a range of normal walking speeds– from 0.6 m/s to 1.4 m/s. Despite a few differences between NMC-produced torques and healthy biological torques, the SCI joint kinematics were similar to healthy kinematics. With few sensors and no predefined gait patterns for multiple speeds or different subjects, the NMC could produce various walking patterns based on subject interaction with the environment. Please see Wu et al. 2017 under publications for more information.

WE1: Ankle and Knee Control

Our consortium partners at Delft and UTwente have developed a new ankle and knee wearable exoskeleton. Tests of the NMC with this device on paraplegic pilots are currently ongoing at the Fondazione Santa Lucia, another one of our consortium partners. Since this exoskeleton only actuates the ankle and knee, these pilots already have some volitional control of their hip joint.

WE2: Lower Limb Control (ankle, knee, hip)

Tests of the full lower limb exoskeleton and neurmuscular controller will be conducted in early 2018. These tests will involve paraplegic pilots who do not have volitional control of their hip joints.

Media

Student Projects

Related student projects:

S. Berger. Energy consumption optimization and stumbling corrective response for bipedal walking gait.

F. Dzeladini. Implementation of a human feedback-based locomotion and its control by means of a feedforward component inspired by central pattern generators

A. di Russo. Biomechanical analysis of slow walking and stepping behavior in healthy subjects on treadmill

Researchers

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Auke J. Ijspeert, Florin Dzeladini, Amy R. Wu

Publications

Quartiers rhodaniens en transition

S. S. Formery Regazzoni / E. Rey (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

DC Power Distribution Networks with Direct Current Transformers

R. Pillon Barcelos / D. Dujic (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Machine Learning for Modeling Stock Returns

T. A. Xu / S. Malamud (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Probabilistic and Deterministic Wellposedness for Low Regularity Dispersive Equations

K. S. C. R. Marsden / J. Krieger (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Randomized low-rank approximation and its applications

U. D. Persson / D. Kressner (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Anomalous dissipation and other non-smooth phenomena in fluids

M. Sorella / M. Colombo (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Topics in statistical physics of high-dimensional machine learning

H. C. Cui / L. Zdeborová (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Turbulence and Heat exchange in the Near-Surface Boundary Layer over Patchy Snow

M. Haugeneder / M. Lehning; R. M. Mott-Grünewald (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Good enough: Intermediate complexity atmospheric models improve the representation of processes affecting seasonal snow

D. S. Reynolds / M. Lehning; R. M. Mott-Grünewald (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Electron-beam based nanoscale quantum controls

H. Shirzad / N. Grandjean; M. S. Chipaux (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Development of Hyphenated Analytical Techniques using spICP-MS for Online Characterization of Metallic Nanoparticles in Aerosols

T. Cen / C. Ludwig; A. Testino (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Study of flexible operating conditions in variable-speed hydraulic turbines : advanced models and experimental validation

M. Seydoux / M. Paolone; E. Vagnoni (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Probing and modulating inter-areal coupling in the cortical visual motion processing pathway with non-invasive brain stimulation

M. Bevilacqua / F. C. Hummel (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

New Applications of 1,3,2-Diazaphospholenes in Catalysis

J. Klett / N. Cramer (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

HaloTag-Based Tools for Live-Cell Imaging and Elucidation of Organellar Redox Biology

S. Emmert / S. Gerber; P. Rivera Fuentes (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Applications of the thawed Gaussian approximation to electronic spectroscopy.

E. Kletnieks / J. Vanicek (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Performing and Detecting Backdoor Attacks on Face Recognition Algorithms

A. C. Unnervik / J-P. Thiran; S. Marcel (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Biophysically accurate and machine learning-based surrogate models to optimize neuroprosthesis design and operation

S. Romeni / S. Micera (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Fair real-time control of energy storage systems in active distribution networks in the presence of uncertainties

P. Grammatikos / M. Paolone; J-Y. Le Boudec (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Drug Screening in C. elegans to identify new pharmacological mitochondrial stress inducers

A. Lalou / J. Auwerx (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Geometric Learning: Leveraging differential geometry for learning and control

B. Fichera / A. Billard (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Development of tools and methods for protein identification: From single molecules to in vivo applications.

S. R. Püntener / B. Fierz; P. Rivera Fuentes (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Content Moderation in Online Platforms

M. Horta Ribeiro / R. West (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Advancing Cell-Free Synthetic Biology: From sustained PURE protein synthesis to an isothermal one-pot DNA replication system

L. S. Grasemann / S. Maerkl (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Engineering hydrogel microenvironments for epithelial organoid culture

A. Chrisnandy / M. Lütolf (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

On the use of Cramér-Rao Lower Bound for least-variance circuit parameters identification of Li-ion cells

V. Sovljanski; M. Paolone 

Journal of Energy Storage. 2024-06-07. Vol. 94, p. 112223. DOI : 10.1016/j.est.2024.112223.

Design and Evaluation of Modular Gas and Wind Sensing Nodes for Static and Mobile Deployments

W. Jin; E. Droz; A. Martinoli 

2024-07-15. 2024 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Boston, Massachusetts, USA, July 15 – 19, 2024.

The Least Increasing Aversion (LIA) Protocol: Illustration on Identifying Individual Susceptibility to Cybersickness Triggers

N. Tian; R. Boulic 

IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 2024.  p. 1-14. DOI : 10.1109/TVCG.2024.3395365.

Stability of influenza A virus in droplets and aerosols is heightened by the presence of commensal respiratory bacteria

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Computational Archives for Experimental Museology

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2021. Emerging Technologies and the Digital Transformation of Museums and Heritage Sites. RISE IMET 2021, Nicosia, Cyprus, June 2-4, 2021. p. 3-18. DOI : 10.1007/978-3-030-83647-4_1.

Radical Intangibles: Materializing the Ephemeral

S. Kenderdine; L. Hibberd; J. Shaw 

Museum and Society. 2021. Vol. 19, num. 2, p. 252-272. DOI : 10.29311/mas.v19i2.3638.

The proliferation of aura

S. Kenderdine; A. Yip 

The Routledge Handbook of Museums, Media and Communication; London: Routledge, 2018. p. 358.

Hemispheres

S. Kenderdine 

The Routledge International Handbook of New Digital Practices in Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums and Heritage Sites; London: Routledge, 2019. p. 520.

Omnidirectional Strategies for Exploring Ancient Cities and Territories

S. Kenderdine 

Digital Cities: Between History and Archaeology; Oxford University Press, 2020. p. 185-206.

Designing Multi-disciplinary Interactive Virtual Environments for Next-Generation Immersive Learning Experiences: Case Studies and Future Directions in Astrobiology, Anatomy and Cultural Heritage

S. Kenderdine; A. Yip; C. Oliver; N. Pather; C. Sammut et al. 

Creativity in the Twenty First Century; Springer, Cham, 2021. p. 49-67.

Experimental museology: immersive visualisation and cultural (big) data

S. Kenderdine 

Experimental Museology; London: Routledge, 2021. p. 240.

DARK MANOEUVRES Digitally Reincorporating the Marginalised Body in the Museum

L. Hibberd; S. Kenderdine 

Emerging Technologies and Museums; New York – Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2022. p. 252.

Archery Rites: Remaking Confucian Rites

S. Kenderdine; L. Hibberd; J. Shaw; T-Z. Chang; Y. Hou 

Chinese Archery Studies: Theoretic and Historic Approaches to a Martial Discipline; Springer Nature Singapore, 2023. p. 249-278.

Kôm Ombo (2023)

F. Labrique; A. Terrier; M. Claude 

Bulletin archéologique des Écoles françaises à l’étranger. 2024. DOI : 10.4000/11sx6.

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Nagy Makhlouf 

NY BOLIGPLAN. 2024. num. 1, p. 36-45.

InterpretCC: Intrinsic User-Centric Interpretability through Global Mixture of Experts

V. Swamy; S. Montariol; J. Blackwell; J. A. Frej; M. Jaggi et al. 

2024. DOI : 10.48550/arxiv.2402.02933.

Protection and Control of a Dual MMC Medium Voltage Supply

M. Dupont; D. Dujic 

2024. PCIM Europe 2024, Nurnberg, Germany, June 11 – 13, 2024.

Comparative Analysis of Unidirectional High Step-Up Converters for Medium-Voltage Applications

S. Subotic; R. Burkart; T. Gradinger; D. Dujic 

2024. PCIM Europe 2024, Nurnberg, Germany, June 11 – 13, 2024.

Voltage Balancing of a Split-Capacitor IGCT 3L-NPC Leg for the Resonant DC Transformer

R. Pillon Barcelos; D. Dujic 

2024. PCIM Europe 2024, Nurnberg, Germany, June 11 – 13, 2024.

Global fluid simulation of plasma turbulence in stellarators with the GBS code

A. Coelho; J. Loizu; P. Ricci; Z. Tecchiolli 

Nuclear Fusion. 2024. Vol. 64, num. 7, p. 076057. DOI : 10.1088/1741-4326/ad4ef5.

Student Answer Forecasting: Transformer-Driven Answer Choice Prediction for Language Learning

E. G. Gado; T. Martorella; L. Zunino; P. Mejia-Domenzain; V. Swamy et al. 

2024. 17th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2024), Atlanta, GA, USA, July 14-17, 2024. DOI : 10.48550/arxiv.2405.20079.

Interpret3C: Interpretable Student Clustering Through Individualized Feature Selection

I. Salles; P. Mejia; V. Swamy; J. Blackwell; T. Käser 

2024-06-14. The 25th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED), Recifé, Brazil, July 8-12, 2024.

Tree in Tree: from Decision trees to Decision Graphs

B. Zhu; M. Shoaran 

2021

Molecular mechanism of plasmid elimination by the DdmDE defense system

L. Loeff; D. W. Adams; C. Chanez; S. Stutzmann; L. Righi et al. 

Science. 2024. DOI : 10.1126/science.adq0534.

Assessment of past dioxin emissions from waste incineration plants based on archive studies and process modeling: a new methodological tool

X. Zhang; A. de Aragao; F. Moll-François; A. Berthet; F. Breider 

Research Square. 2024. DOI : 10.21203/rs.3.rs-4376247/v1.

The Privacy Power of Correlated Noise in Decentralized Learning

Y. Allouah; A. Koloskova; A. El Firdoussi; M. Jaggi; R. Guerraoui 

2024. 41st International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2024), Vienna, Austria, July 21-27, 2024. DOI : 10.48550/arXiv.2405.01031.

Influence of ionization and cumulative effects on laser-induced crystallization in multilayer dielectrics

R. Ricca; V. Boureau; Y. Bellouard 

Physical Review Materials. 2024. Vol. 8, num. 6. DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.8.063402.

Coronal jets identification using Deep Learning as Image and Video Object Detection

A. Joliat 

2024-06-12.

Decomposition method to evaluate district heating/cooling network potential at urban scale

A. C. Gouveia Braz; R. Briguet; L. Girardin; B. Liu; F. Maréchal 

2024-06-01. 34th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering / 15th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (ESCAPE34/PSE24), Florence, Italy, June 2-6, 2024. DOI : 10.3303/BOA2401.

Power performance of a model floating wind turbine subjected to cyclic pitch motion: A wind tunnel study

G. Duan; D. Gattari; F. Porté-Agel 

The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2024), Florence, Italy, May 29-31, 2024.

Power performance of a model floating wind turbine subjected to cyclic pitch motion: A wind tunnel study

G. Duan; D. Gattari; F. Porté-Agel 

2024-06-10. The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2024), Florence, Italy, May 29-31, 2024. p. 092065. DOI : 10.1088/1742-6596/2767/9/092065.

The effect of nacelle-to-rotor size on the wake of a miniature wind turbine

A. S. Dar 

The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2024), Florence, Italy, May 29-31, 2024.

The effect of nacelle-to-rotor size on the wake of a miniature wind turbine

A. S. Dar; R. Majzoub; F. Porté-Agel 

2024. The Science of Making Torque from Wind (TORQUE 2024), Florence, Italy, May 29-31, 2024. p. 092057. DOI : 10.1088/1742-6596/2767/9/092057.

Defining models with differential operators in Akantu

T. Schiesser 

2024-06-12.

Gymnase de Renens – Sobriété et bien-être – 2024-06-03

S. Nick 

2024-06-11

SWICE Working Paper on DLS Mobility

E. Chevrel; J. Millward-Hopkins; V. Fish-Romito; S. Nick 

2024-05-29

Nouvelles formes de démocratie participative et délibérative pour repenser notre approche de santé

S. Nick 

Forum Santé et Société : santé, une urgence démocratique, Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, 2024-06-11.

Results of the Academic Citizens’ Assembly – MYBLUEPLANET 2024

S. Nick 

2024-06-08

Renewable energy integration and waste heat valorization in aluminum remelting for co-producing kerosene and methanol

D. A. Florez Orrego; D. Dardor; M. E. G. Ribeiro Domingos; R. Germanier; F. Maréchal 

2024-06-01. 34th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering / 15th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (ESCAPE34/PSE24), Florence, Italy, June 2-6, 2024. p. 1-6. DOI : 10.3303/BOA2401.

Renewable energy integration and waste heat valorization in aluminum remelting for co-producing kerosene and methanol

D. A. Florez Orrego; D. Dardor; M. E. G. Ribeiro Domingos; R. Germanier; F. Maréchal 

34th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering / 15th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (ESCAPE34/PSE24), Florence, Italy, June 2-6, 2024.

FENNECS: a novel particle-in-cell code for simulating the formation of magnetized non-neutral plasmas trapped by electrodes of complex geometries

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Can Children Benefit from Technological Applications for Body Posture Correction to Improve Handwriting? A Study to Quantitatively Investigate the Correlation between Body Posture and Handwriting Quality

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2024. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-labo-311523.

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2024-06-02. 34th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE 2024), Florence, Italy, June 2-6, 2024.

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2024. CHI EA ’24, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 11-16, 2024. p. 10. DOI : 10.1145/3613905.3650900.

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Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation. 2024. Vol. 43, num. 75. DOI : 10.1007/s10921-024-01090-9.

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On the mechanism of the Gent–McWilliams instability of a columnar vortex in stratified rotating fluids

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Distributional justice, effectiveness, and costs of current and alternative solar PV incentive schemes in Switzerland

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Explainable Face Verification via Feature-Guided Gradient Backpropagation

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2024. The 18th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FG), Istanbul, Turkey, May 27-31, 2024.

Implementation of a tracking system in the eM+ lab panorama

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A 16-Channel 60µW Neural Synchrony Processor for Multi-Mode Phase-Locked Neurostimulation

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A. Dmitriev 

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Thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under thermal changes

H. M. Fuselier / L. Laloui; A. Ferrari (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

A FEM modelling workflow to simulate THM effects in the rock around nuclear waste packages

M. T. S. Wojnarowicz / L. Laloui; A. Madaschi (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Investigation of room-temperature single-photon emitters in GaN-based materials and GaN/AlN quantum dots

J. N. Stachurski / N. Grandjean (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Stability: a search for structure

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Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

Unveiling the complexity of learning and decision-making

W-H. Lin / M. Herzog (Dir.)  

Lausanne, EPFL, 2024. 

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X. Guo; M. A. Shaeri; M. Shoaran 

2022. 2022 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), Taipei, Taiwan, October 13-15, 2022. DOI : 10.1109/BioCAS54905.2022.9948602.

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Tiers of joy? Reserve tiering and bank behavior in a negative-rate environment

A. Fuster; T. Schelling; P. Towbin 

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Cancer Evolution: A Multifaceted Affair

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Augmenting large language models with chemistry tools

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Nature Machine Intelligence. 2024-05-01. Vol. 6, num. 5. DOI : 10.1038/s42256-024-00832-8.

Accessing elusive σ-type cyclopropenium cation equivalents through redox gold catalysis

X. Li; M. D. Wodrich; J. Waser 

Nature Chemistry. 2024-05-23. DOI : 10.1038/s41557-024-01535-8.

Primary and secondary order parameters in the fully frustrated transverse-field Ising model on the square lattice

G. Schumm; H. Shao; W. Guo; F. Mila; A. W. Sandvik 

Physical Review B. 2024-04-26. Vol. 109, num. 14, p. L140408. DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.109.L140408.

Embracing cancer complexity: Hallmarks of systemic disease

C. Swanton; E. Bernard; C. Abbosh; F. Andre; J. Auwerx et al. 

Cell. 2024-03-28. Vol. 187, num. 7, p. 1589-1616. DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2024.02.009.