As defined by WHO,

Neurodevelopmental disorders are behavioural and cognitive disorders, that arise during the developmental period, and involve significant difficulties in the acquisition and execution of specific intellectual, motor, language, or social functions.”

Neurodevelopmental disorders include disorders of intellectual development, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) amongst others. ADHD is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that has a direct negative impact on academic, occupational, or social functioning.  Disorders of intellectual development are characterised by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which refers to difficulties with everyday conceptual, social, and practical skills that are performed in daily life. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) constitutes a diverse group of conditions characterised by some degree of difficulty with social communication and reciprocal social interaction, as well as persistent restricted, repetitive, and inflexible patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities.

Source : OMS, 2022. Mental disorders. World Health Organization [online]. 8 June 2022. [Accessed on 17 February 2023].

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Some NDD pathologies induce sensory hypersensitivities that can cause a crisis.Linguistic impairment is not necessarily associated with intellectual disability. 
De nombreux enfants concernés par un trouble de déficit de Pushing children with a NDD to perform a simple action may induce stress or psychological distress (ex. asking a dispraxic child to tie his/her shoes). Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are not infectious diseases : children who have them cannot transmit them to their friends. 
Children with ADHD often have low self-esteem and underestimate their intellectual abilities. In general, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) do not have any physical differences, they are only children with specific health needs.
Diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders are quickly identified during early childhood.Neurodevelopmental disorders are always clearly visible. 
All autistic individuals have very high intellectual capacities and present only social interaction difficulties.ADHD and ASD are always caused by genetic mutations. 

Hyperactive children cannot stay in place or focus on a task at school as a result of poor parental discipline.ADHD is a childhood disorder.

Real-life stories

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Danny was born with a rare congenial heart condition and was also diagnosed with Autism.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What it’s like to be diagnosed with ADHD as an adult (Source: How to ADHD)


Find out more

  • ADHD– Canada
  • Caddra – Canada
  • Caddac – Canada
  • ADHD – Document for family and teachers to support ADHD child integration in their environment (English : from page 25)

Where to get help