Position and attitude determination

Position and attitude determination of moving platforms or subjects is the main-stream of the lab research activity. The laboratory expertise in algorithm development for real-time or post-mission positioning have been applied to precise trajectory determination of land or airborne vehicles and pedestrians. We make use of satellite based (GPS, Glonass, Galileo) positioning, inertial sensors, magnetic sensors, imagery and networked based positioning via Ultra-wide band or 802.x technology. Most recent focus is in the developing of navigation system that can operate accurately and robustly even in the absence of external (GPS, Glonass, Galileo) positioning means. Developing visual and Vehicle Dynamic based Navigation schemes that utilise both filtering and machine learning based algorithms and approaches


Particular focus is give to the following areas:

  • GNSS and INS integration and filtering algorithms
  • GNSS free (Vehicle Dynamic and Visual) Navigation schemes
  • Error modelling and estimation methods

Aerodynamic modeling of a delta-wing UAV for model-based navigation

P. Longobardi; J. Skaloud 

CEAS Aeronautical Journal . 2024-03-19. DOI : 10.1007/s13272-024-00727-9.

VDMNav: Software Architecture for Aerodynamically Constrained Navigation on Small Fixed-Wing Drones

G. F. Laupré; A. Sharma; J. Skaloud 

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 2024-01-25. Vol. 9, num. 3, p. 2869 – 2876. DOI : 10.1109/LRA.2024.3358758.

Reliable strategies for implementing model-based navigation on fixed-wing drones

G. F. Laupré; L. Pirlet; J. Skaloud 

The Journal of Navigation (RIN). 2023-12-18.  p. 1-19. DOI : 10.1017/S0373463323000267.

Identifying aerodynamics of small fixed-wing drones using inertial measurements for model-based navigation

A. Sharma; G. F. Laupré; J. Skaloud 

NAVIGATION. 2023. Vol. 70, num. 4, p. 34. DOI : 10.33012/navi.611.

Wavelet-Based Moment-Matching Techniques for Inertial Sensor Calibration

S. Guerrier; J. Jurando; M. Khaghani; G. Bakali; M. Karemera et al. 

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 2020-04-08. Vol. 69, num. 10, p. 7542-7551. DOI : 10.1109/TIM.2020.2984820.

On the calibration aspects of MEMS-IMUs used in micro UAVs for sensor orientation

P. Clausen; J. Skaloud 

2020-06-09. IEEE-ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Portland, Oregon, April 20-23, 2020. DOI : 10.1109/PLANS46316.2020.9110160.

Optimal Stochastic Sensor Error Modeling based on Actual Impact on Quality of GNSS-INS Integrated Navigation

M. Khaghani; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud; Y. Zhang 

2019-09-20. ION GNSS+, Miami, Florida, US, September 16-20, 2019. p. 2566-2574. DOI : 10.33012/2019.17057.

Sensitivity to Time Delays in VDM-Based Navigation

G. F. Laupré; M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

Drones. 2019-01-14. Vol. 3, num. 1, p. 11. DOI : 10.3390/drones3010011.

VDM-based UAV Attitude Determination in Absence of IMU Data

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

2018-08-13. 2018 European Navigation Conference (ENC), Gothenburg, Sweden, May 14-17, 2018. p. 84-90. DOI : 10.1109/EURONAV.2018.8433243.

Construction of dynamically-dependent stochastic error models

P. Clausen; J. Skaloud; S. Guerrier 

IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS 2018), Monterey, CA, USA, 23-26 April 2018.

Assessment of VDM-based autonomous navigation of a UAV under operational conditions

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

Robotics and Autonomous Systems. 2018-05-17. Vol. 106, num. 106, p. 152-164. DOI : 10.1016/j.robot.2018.05.007.

Vehicle Dynamic Model Based Navigation for Small UAVs

M. Khaghani / J. Skaloud (Dir.)  

EPFL, 2018. 

Bundle adjustment with raw inertial observations

D. A. Cucci; M. Rehak; J. Skaloud 

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 2017-05-23. Vol. 130, p. 1-12. DOI : 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2017.05.008.

An overview of a new sensor calibration platform

P. Clausen; J. Skaloud; R. Molinari; J. Balamuta; S. Guerrier 

2017-08-01. 4th IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for AeroSpace (MetroAeroSpace 2017), Padua, Italy, June 21-23, 2017. p. 364-368. DOI : 10.1109/MetroAeroSpace.2017.7999598.

Parameter Determination of Sensor Stochastic Models under Covariate Dependency

J. Skaloud; P. Clausen; S. Orso; S. Guerrier 

European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, April 8 – 13, 2018.

An Overview of a New Sensor Calibration Platform

P. Clausen; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud 

4th IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Aerosapce, Padua, Italy, June 21 – 23, 2017.

Positioning Autonomy of a Fixed-Wing UAV through VDM/INS Integration with Experimental Results

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

2017.  p. 2332-2337.

Erhöhte Zuverlässigkeit der GPS Drohnennavigation dank einem integrierten Barometer

P. Clausen; B. Luiset; J. Skaloud 

AHORN 2016 – der Alpenraum und seine Herausforderungen im Bereich Orientierung, Navigation und Informationsaustausch, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 17.-18. November 2016.

Application Of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling In Uavs For Precise Determination Of Exterior Orientation

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

2016.  p. 827-831. DOI : 10.5194/isprsarchives-XLI-B3-827-2016.

Autonomous Vehicle Dynamic Model-Based Navigation for Small UAVs

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

Navigation-Journal of the Institute of Navigation. 2016. Vol. 63, num. 3, p. 345-358. DOI : 10.1002/navi.140.

Autonomous Navigation Of Small Uavs Based On Vehicle Dynamic Model

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

2016.  p. 117-122. DOI : 10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-3-W4-117-2016.

Evaluation of Wind Effects on UAV Autonomous Navigation Based on Vehicle Dynamic Model

M. Khaghani; J. Skaloud 

2016.  p. 1432-1440.

An analysis of a gyro-free inertial system for INS/GNSS navigation

D. A. Cucci; O. G. Crespillo; M. Khaghani 

2016.  p. 1-7. DOI : 10.1109/EURONAV.2016.7530560.

Automatic and computationally efficient method for model selection in inertial sensor calibration

R. Molinari; J. Balamuta; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud 

2015. ION GNSS+, September 14-18.

A computationally efficient platform for inertial sensor calibration

S. Guerrier; J. Balamuta; R. Molinari; J. Skaloud 

2015. ION GNSS+, Tampa, Florida, USA, September 14-18.

Generalized Method of Wavelet Moments for Inertial Navigation Filter Design

Y. Stebler; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 2014. Vol. 50, num. 3, p. 2269-2283. DOI : 10.1109/Taes.2014.120751.

Satellite Positioning for Sport-Performance Analysis: Challenges & Responses

J. Skaloud 

International Sport Convention 2014, Geneva, Switzerland, December 10-11, 2014.

Wavelet-variance-based estimation for composite stochastic processes

S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud; Y. Stebler; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

Journal of the American Statistical Association. 2013. Vol. 108, num. 503, p. 1021-1030. DOI : 10.1080/01621459.2013.799920.

An algorithm for automatic inertial sensor calibration

S. Guerrier; R. Molinari; J. Skaloud; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

2013. ION GNSS+, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, September 16-20, 2013.

Pedestrian Navigation for the Benefit of Mobility

P-Y. Gilliéron; V. Chazal; M. Flamm; D. Von Der Mühll; M. Ruzicka-Rossier 

Geopositioning and Mobility; UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2013. p. 155-201.

Searching the Rhone delta channel in Lake Geneva since François-Alphonse Forel

S. Girardclos; M. Hilbe; J. P. Corella; J-L. Loizeau; K. Kremer et al. 

Archives des Sciences. 2012. Vol. 65, p. 103-118. DOI : 10.5169/seals-738355.

Fault Detection and Isolation in Multiple MEMS-IMUs Configurations

S. Guerrier; A. Waegli; J. Skaloud; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

Ieee Transactions On Aerospace And Electronic Systems. 2012. Vol. 48, p. 2015-2031. DOI : 10.1109/TAES.2012.6237576.

Drones to the Rescue!

P. Molina; I. Colomina; P. Victoria; J. Skaloud; W. Kornus et al. 

Inside GNSS. 2012. Vol. July/August.

A Framework for Inertial Sensor Calibration Using Complex Stochastic Error Models

Y. Stebler; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

2012. ION/IEEE PLANS, Session A5, Myrtle Beach, SC, USA, April 2012. p. 849-861. DOI : 10.1109/PLANS.2012.6236827.

Integrity Aspects of Hybrid EGNOS-based Navigation on Support of Search And-Rescue Missions with UAVs

P. Molina; I. Colomina; T. Victoria; P. Freire; J. Bandeiras et al. 

2011. ION GNSS 2011, Portland, Oregon, USA, September 19-23, 2011. p. 8.

Improving Modeling of MEMS-IMUs Operating in GNSS-denied Conditions

Y. Stebler; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

2011. ION GNSS 2011, Portland, Oregon, USA, September 19-23, 2011. p. 10.

Rigorous Integration of Inertial Navigation with Optical Sensors by Dynamic Networks

D. Rouzaud; J. Skaloud 

Journal of Navigation. 2011. Vol. 58, num. 2, p. 141-152.

Constrained expectation-maximization algorithm for stochastic inertial error modeling: study of feasibility

Y. Stebler; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud; M-P. Victoria-Feser 

Measurement Science and Technology. 2011. Vol. 22, num. 8, p. 12. DOI : 10.1088/0957-0233/22/8/085204.


P. Molina; I. Colomina; T. Vitoria; P. Freire; J. Skaloud et al. 

2011. International Geomatic Week 2011, Barcelona, March 15-17, 2011.

The close-search project: uav-based search operations using thermal imaging and egnos-sol navigation

P. Molina; I. Colomina; T. Vitoria; P. Freire; J. Skaloud et al. 

2011. 4i4DM 2011 – GeoInformation For Disaster Management, Antalya, Spain, May 3-8, 2011.

A Split/Merge Approach for Landslide Monitoring via Terrestrial Laser Scanning

J. Wu; P-Y. Gilliéron; B. Merminod 

2011. 3rd International Conference of Earth Observation of Global Changes (EOGC), Munich, Germany, April 13-15, 2011.

Qualité de la localisation dans les applications mobiles

P-Y. Gilliéron 


Personal Robust Navigation in Challenging Applications

V. J. T. Renaudin-Schouler; P-Y. Gilliéron 

Journal of Navigation. 2011. Vol. 64, num. 02, p. 235-249. DOI : 10.1017/S0373463310000408.

Noise reduction and estimation in multiple micro-electro-mechanical inertial systems

A. Wägli; J. Skaloud; S. Guerrier; M. E. Parés; I. Colomina 

Measurement Science and Technology. 2010. Vol. 21, num. 6, p. 065201. DOI : 10.1088/0957-0233/21/6/065201.

Low-cost optical-based indoor tracking device for detection and mitigation of NLOS effects

F. Tappero 

2009. Eurosensors XXIII, Lausanne (Switzerland), September 6-9, 2009. p. 497-500. DOI : 10.1016/j.proche.2009.07.124.

Decimeter-Level Positioning Engine for an Indoor Ultra-Wideband / Laser Scanner Positioning System

F. Tappero; P. Schaer; B. Merminod 

2009. European Navigation Conference – Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ENC-GNSS), Napoli (Italy), May 3-6, 2009.

The use of wavelet transform for an automated initialization in GPS/MEMS-IMU integration

H. Fournier; J. Skaloud; A. Wägli 

2009. 13th IAIN World Congress, Stockholm (Sweden), October 27-30, 2009. p. 27-30.

Contrôle de l’intégrité GPS en temps réel et géoréférencement direct par RTK-GPS pour le levé laser aéroporté

Y. Stebler 

Géomatique Suisse. 2009. num. 3, p. 100-103. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236592.

La navigation pédestre dans l’espace public: évaluation des besoins et esquisses de solutions

P. Gilliéron; V. Chazal; T. Delavy; M. Flamm; D. von der Mühll et al. 


Optimal Data Fusion for Pedestrian Navigation based on UWB and MEMS

V. Renaudin; B. Merminod; M. Kasser 

2008. PLANS 2008, Monterey, California (USA), May 5-8, 2008. DOI : 10.1109/PLANS.2008.4570054.

UWB and MEMS Based Indoor Navigation

S. Pittet; V. Renaudin; B. Merminod 

Royal Institute of Navigation. 2008. Vol. 61, num. 3, p. 369-384. DOI : 10.1017/S0373463308004797.

Improving pedestrian dynamics modelling using fuzzy logic

P. Tomé; F. Bonzon; B. Merminod; K. Aminian 

2008. PED2008 Conference in pedestrian navigation, Wuppertal (Germany), February 27-29, 2008. p. 503-508. DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-04504-2_42.

Accurate Trajectory and Orientation of a Motorcycle derived from low-cost Satellite and Inertial Measurement Systems

A. Waegli; A. Schorderet; C. Prongué; J. Skaloud 

2008. 7th ISEA CONFERENCE 2008, Biarritz, June 2-6, 2008. p. 223-230. DOI : 10.1007/978-2-287-09411-8_27.

Redundant MEMS-IMU integrated with GPS for Performance Assessment in Sports

A. Waegli; S. Guerrier; J. Skaloud 

2008. IEEE/ION PLANS 2008, Monterey, California, May 5-8, 2008. p. 1260-1268. DOI : 10.1109/PLANS.2008.4570079.

Le filtre de Kalman unscented – outil performant en géodésie cinématique

V. Constantin; A. Waegli; J. Skaloud 

Géomatique Suisse. 2008. Vol. 1, p. 12-17. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236495.

Assessment of Timing and Performance based on Trajectories from low-cost GPS/INS Positioning

A. Waegli; F. Meyer; S. Ducret; J. Skaloud; R. Pesty 

2007. International Congress on Science and Skiing, St. Christoph, Austria, December 14-20 2007.

Inertial and RFID sensors for indoor navigation in case of emergency intervention

V. Renaudin; O. Yalak; P. Tomé; B. Merminod 

2007. TimeNav’07, Geneva, May 29 – June 1, 2007.

L’analyse de performance sportive à l’aide d’un système GPS/INS low-cost: évaluation de capteurs inertiels de type MEMS

A. Waegli; J-M. Bonnaz; J. Skaloud 

XYZ. 2007. Vol. 113, p. 19-24.

Turning Point – Trajectory Analysis for Skiers

A. Waegli; J. Skaloud 

Inside GNSS. 2007. Vol. Spring 2007, p. 24-34.

Assessment of GPS/MEMS-IMU Integration Performance in Ski Racing

A. Waegli; J. Skaloud 

2007. TimeNav’07, Geneva (Switzerland), May 29-June 1, 2007.

Assessment of the Integration Strategy between GPS and Body-Worn MEMS Sensors with Application to Sports

A. Waegli; J. Skaloud; P. Tomé; J-M. Bonnaz 

2007. ION-GNSS 2007, Fort Worth (Texas, USA), September 25-28, 2007.

Indoor location for safety application using wireless networks

F. Barceló-Arroyo; M. Ciurana; I. Watt; F. Evenou; L. De Nardis et al. 

2007. 1st ERCIM Workshop on Mobility, Coimbra,, Portugal, 21st May 2007.

Indoor Navigation of Emergency Agents

V. Renaudin; O. Yalak; P. Tomé; B. Merminod 

European Journal of Navigation. 2007. Vol. 5, num. 3, p. 36-45.

Techniques de localisation intra-muros à transmission Ultra Large Bande

V. Renaudin; B. Merminod; M. Kasser 

Revue XYZ. 2007. Vol. 111, p. 15-19.

SARHA – Development of a Sensor-Augmented GPS/EGNOS/Galileo Receiver for Urban and Indoor Environments

F. Weimann; P. Tomé; A. Waegli; K. Aichhorn; O. Yalak et al. 

2007. 7th Geomatic Week, Barcelona, Spain, 20-23 February 2007.

Hybridization of MEMS and Assisted GPS for Pedestrian Navigation

V. Renaudin; O. Yalak; P. Tomé 

Inside GNSS. 2007. Vol. January/February, p. 34-42.

Sensor-Augmented EGNOS/Galileo Receiver for Handheld Applications in Urban and Indoor Environments – SARHA

F. Weimann; P. Tomé; E. Wasle; A. Waegli; O. Yalak et al. 

2006. 3rd ESA Workshop on Satellite Navigation User Equipment Technologies (NAVITEC 2006), Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 11-13 December 2006.

Map-matching for pedestrians via Bayesian inference


2006. ENC GNSS 2006, Manchester, UK, 7-10 May 2006.

Bayesian Inference for Autonomous Personal Localisation Indoors


2006. International Symposium of Transport Simulation 2006, EPFL, Lausanne, Suisse, 4th-6th September 2006.

Advances in indoor Location

F. Barceló; F. Evennou; L. de Nardis; P. Tomé 

2006. LIAISON – ISHTAR Workshop, Athens, Greece, 28-29 September 2006.

Custom GPS-Correction Server for Real-Time Trajectography

H. Gontran 

2006. ION GNSS ´06, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, Sept. 26-29, 2006.

SARFOS – Search And Rescue Forward Operation Support System

B. Ott; K. Sauer; A. Waegli 

2005. ENC-GNSS 2005, Munich (Germany), July 19-22, 2005.

Der Alpenraum und seine Herausforderungen im Bereich Orientierung, Navigation und Informationsaustausch

K. Legat 

2005. AHORN, Innsbruck, November 24-25.

Exploring Bidirectional GPRS Capabilities in GNSS Positioning

H. Gontran; M. Lehmann; J. Skaloud 

2005. GNSS 2005, Munich (Germany), July 19-22.

Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation Using a Geomatics Approach

F. A. Bayoud 

2005. ION GNSS 2005, Long Beach (California), September 13-16.

Integrating Photogrammetry and Inertial Sensors for Robotics Navigation and Mapping

F. A. Bayoud; J. Skaloud; B. Merminod 

2005. Integrating Photogrammetry and Inertial Sensors for Robotics Navigation and Mapping, Vienna (Austria), October 3-5.

Indoor Navigation Enhanced by Map-Matching

P-Y. Gilliéron; I. Spassov; B. Merminod 

European Journal of Navigation. 2005. Vol. 3, num. 3.

Galileo et le prix de la mobilité

P-Y. Gilliéron; A. Waegli 

route et trafic. 2005. Vol. 3, p. 19-22.

Développement d’un système d’acquisition de données inertielles / GPS

P. Viret; J. Skaloud 

Revue Polytechnique. 2005. Vol. 1688, num. 1/05, p. 13-15.

Navigation pédestre dans un environnement construit

P-Y. Gilliéron; Q. Ladetto 

Navigation. 2005. Vol. 53, p. 49-63.

De la navigation à la mensuration pédestre … et inversement !

Q. Ladetto 

Géomatique Suisse. 2004. num. 11, p. 660-663. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236174.

Photogrammetry-derived Navigation Parameters for INS Kalman Filter Updates

F. A. Bayoud; J. Skaloud; B. Merminod 

2004. XXth ISPRS Congress, Istanbul (Turkey), July 14-23.

GSM-Distributed RTK for Precise Analysis of Speed Skiing

J. Skaloud; H. Gontran; B. Merminod 


Indoor Navigation Performance Analysis

P-Y. Gilliéron; D. Büchel; I. Spassov; B. Merminod 

2004. GNSS 2004, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), May 17-19.

Navigation pédestre à l’intérieur des bâtiments

D. Büchel; P-Y. Gilliéron 

Géomatique Suisse. 2004. num. 11, p. 664-668. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236175.

GPS/INS Integration: From Modern Methods of Data Acquisition fo New Applications

J. Skaloud; P. Viret 

European Journal of Navigation. 2004. Vol. 2, num. 4, p. 40-44.

Transmission en temps réel de corrections GPS

H. Gontran 

Flash Informatique. 2004.  p. 03..

Techniques GPS-RTK appliquées à la trajectographie

H. Gontran; J. Skaloud 

Revue XYZ. 2004. Vol. 99, p. 25-30.

Navigation pédestre: le futur en marche

P-Y. Gilliéron; Q. Ladetto; D. Büchel; I. Spassov; C. Hagin et al. 

Géomatique (revue du Québec). 2004. Vol. 31, num. 1, p. 6-13.

Challenging EGNOS in the Swiss Alps

O. Perrin; M. Scramuzza; T. Buchanan; S. Soley; P-Y. Gilliéron et al. 

2003. GNSS 2003, Graz, Austria, April 22-25, 2003.

The EGNOS Integrity Concept: Evaluation of the Ionospheric Corrections

A. Waegli 

2003. ION-GPS 2003, Portland (Oregon), September 9-12, 2003.

Personal Navigation System for Indoor Applications

P-Y. Gilliéron; B. Merminod 

2003. 11th IAIN World Congress, Berlin (Germany), October 21-24.

Synergy of CP-DGPS, Accelerometry and Magnetic Sensors for recise Trajectography in Ski Racing

J. Skaloud; P. Limpach 


Variance-Covariance perturbation analysis of a Linear Model

F. Jin; B. Merminod; H. Dupraz; P-Y. Gilliéron 

Survey Review. 2003. Vol. 37, num. 289, p. 246-257. DOI : 10.1179/sre.2003.37.289.246.

Trajectographie de courses de ski alpin avec GPS

P. Limpach; J. Skaloud 

Géomatique Suisse. 2003. num. 7, p. 389-392. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236038.

Trajectographie de courses de ski alpin avec GPS

P. Limpach 


Le Concept d’intégrité d’EGNOS

A. Waegli; P-Y. Gilliéron 

Géomatique Suisse. 2003. num. 11, p. 616-621. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236061.

Evaluation de mesures dynamiques pour la navigation aérienne dans le cadre du projet EGNOS

A. Waegli 


Développement d’un système d’information pour piétons

F. Voisard 

Géomatique Suisse. 2003. num. 7, p. 384-388. DOI : 10.5169/seals-236037.

Challenging EGNOS in the Swiss Alps

O. Perrin; M. Scramuzza; T. Buchanan; S. Soley; P-Y. Gilliéron et al. 

2003. Global Navigation Satellite System, Graz, Austria, 22-25 April 2003.