1. Tissue sampling of four different species (1 plant, 1 butterfly, 2 amphibians), DNA extraction, and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) in order to answer the research questions and to establish reference values for the genetic diversity and connectivity among green spaces in the Geneva cross-border area. This reference value will be compared to future genetic diversity measurements (10 years time horizon) and will allow assessing the dynamics of the genetic diversity and connectivity in the Geneva cross-border area.
  2. To measure the genetic diversity in selected green spaces and to estimate gene flow and functional vs. structural connectivity among the respective areas.
  3. To measure the influence of recent and new civil works on genetic diversity and gene flow (empiric data, cf. objective 1) and to simulate the future impact of the urbanization process on gene flow for the Grand Geneva area using computer models (time horizon 2020, 2025, 2030, 2040, 2050).
  4. To evaluate the correlation between a) socio-economic characteristics and genetic diversity and b) the environmental factors and genetic diversity measured at different spatial scales in the area of Grand Geneva.
  5. To propose a Quality of Life Index that takes into account biodiversity measurements (cf. GREENTRACE project).
  6. To propose an Urban Biodiversity Index for the area of Grand Geneva with respect to different urbanization levels.