Out-of-plane response of URM walls

At EESD, we have developed an analytical model to capture the flexural response of vertically spanning out-of-plane loaded URM walls. Developed using the second-order Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, this model effectively represents key aspects of these walls’ response, previously observed in experiments and numerical studies but lacking a theoretical explanation. These aspects include the initial development and progression of cracks, the maximum strength of the walls under load, and the reduction in response strength due to P−Δ effects. The model’s accuracy is confirmed by comparing it with experimental data, showing its ability to accurately predict the walls’ behavior both before and after reaching their peak strength. 

A, Vertically spanning load-bearing masonry wall subjected to out-of-plane loading. B, Pushover curve and bilinear and trilinear approximations. Image is taken from Godio & Beyer (2017).

  • Article:
    • Analytical model for the out-of-plane response of vertically spanning unreinforced masonry walls [journal link]
    • Evaluation of force-based and displacement-based out-of-plane seismic assessment methods for unreinforced masonry walls through refined model simulations [journal link]
  • Acknowledgment:
    • This work was prepared as part of the Basel-Project, which is supported by the Swiss Federal Office of the Environment and the Construction Department of the Canton Basel-Stadt.